The novel coronavirus pneumonia novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic is spreading and spreading at
. The risk of new epidemic of
is very high in autumn and winter. The
influenza vaccines were vaccinated last year, and will
be vaccinated again this year? At present, what are the main reasons for the shortage of influenza vaccine? When can
be relieved? After vaccination with “spekds”, will there be abnormal reaction?
on the afternoon of September 28,
were answered by Qi Qi, director and chief physician of
of Sichuan Provincial Center for Disease Control and prevention. What is
influenza? What are the main sources of infection? What is the spread of influenza? Who is susceptible to influenza? A: influenza is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by influenza virus. Influenza virus can cause seasonal epidemics in winter and spring every year because of its variable antigenicity and rapid transmission. Outbreaks can occur in places where people gather in schools, nurseries and nursing homes. Influenza viruses can be divided into four types: A, B, C and D. Only influenza A, B and C can infect people. At present, influenza viruses causing seasonal epidemics are H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes of influenza A, and Victoria and Yamagata strains of
patients and occult infectors of B virus are the main sources of infection. From the end of incubation period to the acute stage, the virus is generally discharged in human respiratory secretions for 3-7 days. The detoxification time of children, immune function impairment and critical patients can exceed 1 week.
influenza viruses are mainly transmitted by sneezing, coughing and other droplets, and are directly or indirectly infected through oral cavity, nasal cavity, eyes and other mucous membranes. Contact with virus contaminated items can also be infected through the above-mentioned routes. In specific places, such as densely populated and airtight or poorly ventilated rooms, they may also spread in the form of aerosols, which should be alerted. Kdspe and
were susceptible. Some high-risk groups, such as elderly people aged 60 and above, children aged 6-5 years, patients with chronic diseases, family members and caregivers of infants under 6 months, and pregnant women are prone to severe illness and death after influenza, which should be paid more attention to.
what are the symptoms of influenza? What are the differences between common cold and common cold?
A: influenza is generally characterized by acute onset, fever (up to 39-40 ℃), accompanied by chills, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, extreme fatigue, loss of appetite and other systemic symptoms. There are often sore throat, cough, nasal congestion, runny nose, discomfort after the sternum, flushing face, mild mucosal bleeding, vomiting, diarrhea and other symptoms. Mild influenza is often similar to the common cold, but its fever and systemic symptoms are more obvious. Severe cases may have viral pneumonia, secondary bacterial pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation, cardiovascular and nervous system and other extrapulmonary manifestations and complications. The difference between
influenza and common cold:
① viruses are different.
influenza refers to respiratory tract infection caused by various types of influenza virus; common cold refers to throat and upper respiratory tract infection caused by various pathogens, such as rhinovirus, coronavirus, bacteria, etc. The prevalence of
influenza often cause different degrees of epidemics with strong infectivity and obvious seasonality, while common colds are mostly sporadic, with weak infectivity and no obvious seasonality. The clinical symptoms of
were different. The clinical symptoms of
influenza are more serious than common cold. Influenza is mainly characterized by severe systemic symptoms, high fever (39-40 ° C) and chills; while common cold is mainly characterized by local symptoms of respiratory tract, with no fever or mild or moderate fever and no chills.
influenza can not only cause viral pneumonia, but also complicated with bacterial pneumonia, otitis media, myocarditis and other complications. Generally speaking, the clinical manifestations of influenza are lack of specificity, and the diagnosis of influenza depends on laboratory diagnosis. At present, the detection methods mainly include nucleic acid detection and rapid antigen detection of influenza virus.
seasonal influenza can be prevented? “Spkds” is a disease that can be prevented and cured.
are preventable: annual influenza vaccination is the most effective means to prevent influenza, and influenza vaccination can significantly reduce the risk of influenza and serious complications. At the same time, in the influenza epidemic season, keep good personal hygiene habits such as washing hands frequently, ventilation more, wearing masks, and do a good job in self isolation, self-protection and self-health management, which can effectively reduce the spread of the virus.
can be cured: Currently, oseltamivir (capsule / granule) is the most widely used anti influenza drug, which is effective against influenza A and influenza B. Anti influenza virus drug prevention can not replace vaccination. It can only be used as an emergency and temporary preventive measure for the high-risk population of severe influenza who have not been vaccinated and have not acquired immunity after vaccination. For patients with severe or high risk factors of severe influenza, early treatment with anti influenza virus can reduce complications, reduce mortality and shorten hospital stay. Is
vaccination necessary? What are the types of influenza vaccines? What’s the difference?
A: it is necessary. The antigenicity of influenza virus is easy to change and spread rapidly. It can cause seasonal influenza every year, which seriously endangers people’s health. Vaccination with influenza vaccine can make the recipients produce protective antibodies and significantly reduce the risk of influenza. Generally, the antibody with protective level can be produced 2-4 weeks after vaccination, and the antibody titer begins to decline after 6-8 months. The epidemic peak of influenza in our province is generally from November to march of the next year. In order to ensure that the vaccinees can get immune protection before the peak season of influenza, it is recommended to complete the influenza vaccination before the end of October. If they are not vaccinated before the end of October, they can be vaccinated throughout the epidemic season. The types and differences of
influenza vaccines are as followsAt present, the influenza vaccines approved for marketing in China include trivalent and tetravalent vaccine groups. Among them, trivalent influenza vaccine can prevent influenza A (H1N1), H3N2 and BV, and the tetravalent influenza vaccine also contains by influenza virus immune antigen. What kind of vaccine is
influenza vaccine? What’s the effect? Is it necessary to vaccinate everyone? Is there any age limit for vaccination population? Who can fight? The most effective way to reduce the risk of influenza is to vaccinate people with severe influenza every year. At present, influenza vaccine in most areas of our country belongs to non immunization program vaccine, citizens pay their own expenses and voluntarily vaccinate.
according to the recommendations of “technical guidelines for influenza vaccination in China (2020-2021):”
“in principle, all people who are willing to be vaccinated and have no contraindications can be vaccinated. In order to reduce the harm of influenza and its impact on the prevention and control of the new epidemic situation, it is recommended to vaccinate the key and high-risk population according to the priority:
(1) medical staff.
(2) vulnerable groups and employees in elderly care institutions, long-term care institutions and welfare homes;
(3) people in key places, such as teachers and students in kindergartens, primary and secondary schools, prisoners and staff of prison institutions; and
(4) other high-risk groups of influenza, including elderly people aged 60 years and above, children aged 6-5 years, patients with chronic diseases, family members and caregivers of infants under 6 months old, and pregnant women or women preparing to become pregnant during the influenza season.
what channels and ways can ordinary citizens get influenza vaccine? Is it possible to vaccinate across communities? Can I book a flu vaccine online?
answer: all people who are willing to receive influenza vaccine and have no contraindications can go to the vaccination unit for vaccination. It can be vaccinated across communities. At present, some vaccination units in Sichuan Province can provide online booking service, and the specific situation needs to be consulted.
influenza vaccine was inoculated last year. Do you want to re vaccinate this year?
A: it is necessary to vaccinate because the influenza viruses of
are highly variable. The epidemic strains in the previous influenza season may be different from those in this year’s influenza season. In order to match the ever-changing influenza virus, who will recommend the components of influenza vaccine every year. In most seasons, one or more strains will be updated, and three strains will be updated this year. The antibody titer of
began to decline 6-8 months after vaccination, that is to say, the protective effect could be maintained for 6-8 months. Therefore, even if the composition of influenza vaccine is identical with that of the previous season, given that the antibody titer of most vaccinators has decreased significantly, it is still recommended to vaccinate before the arrival of the current influenza season, regardless of whether the influenza vaccine was vaccinated in the previous quarter.
at present, how about the vaccine supply in our province? In particular, is influenza vaccine and group A Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine in short supply?
A: influenza vaccine is a national non immunization program vaccine, which is purchased and distributed by the CDC at the county level. At present, there are 11 manufacturers in China that can supply influenza vaccine. Among them, 7 manufacturing enterprises have been admitted in our province, and the products of the rest of the manufacturers are in the process of supplementary online sunshine procurement in our province. It is expected that the products can be online on the drug purchasing platform of our province for county-level CDC procurement in October. The novel coronavirus pneumonia vaccine is a national vaccine for
vaccine, and is known as the
A group. The national Wuhan Vaccine Institute Limited has been producing and supplying the disease. The number of suppliers can not meet the demand.
live attenuated poliomyelitis vaccine (hereinafter referred to as bopv) is the vaccine of national immunization program. The vaccine produced by Beijing Institute of Biological Products Co., Ltd. was invited for bidding in our province. Affected by the novel coronavirus pneumonia, Beijing’s bOPV production plan is delayed, which will have some impact on the normal production of bOPV.
4 and 9 Price HPV vaccines (hereinafter referred to as HPV vaccines) are national non immunization program vaccines, which are purchased and distributed by county CDCs themselves. Affected by the capacity and supply of enterprises, supply has always been in short supply.
at present, what are the main reasons for the shortage of influenza vaccine? When can it be relieved?
A: the reasons for the shortage of influenza vaccine:
are: firstly, the willingness of the masses to vaccinate has increased greatly. In recent three years, the average number of influenza vaccine inoculants in the province was about 940000. This year, affected by the new epidemic situation, the demand for influenza vaccine in the whole province has increased significantly. The total planned procurement of influenza vaccine reported by various cities (prefectures) is 6.26 million, an increase of 6.66 times.
is that the supply of influenza vaccine can not meet the demand. According to the statistics of supply plans fed back by 11 influenza vaccine manufacturers, the province plans to supply 4.555 million influenza vaccines this year, and the 11 influenza vaccine manufacturers can only meet 74.1% of the total supply in 2020 due to production capacity before the end of October.
in view of the shortage of influenza vaccine, we are trying to take measures:
Provincial Health Commission attaches great importance to influenza prevention and control in Sichuan Province. It has organized and held many communication meetings on the supply of influenza vaccine and 23 valent pneumonia vaccine in Sichuan Province for many times, coordinating and communicating with influenza vaccine manufacturers and requiring manufacturers to increase supply; the provincial CDC regularly monitors and analyzes the relevant situation of influenza vaccine in our province, and collects influenza vaccine supply plan from manufacturers every month Plan, actual supply and other data, and supervise its supply. Meanwhile, since September, the demand, supply and use of influenza vaccine will be collected from each city (state) every week to form a weekly report. The key points of
are: vaccination can indeed play a certain role in protection, but to develop a healthy lifestyle, reasonable diet, pay attention to ventilation, pay attention to hygiene, strengthen exercise, strengthen physical fitness, improve their immunity and resistance is also one of the effective ways to resist influenza virus.
Kdsps” after vaccination, will there be abnormal response? If so, what are the effects on your health?
A: vaccine for human body, after all, is a foreign body. After vaccination, local reactions such as pain, swelling, itching and hard knot may occur in the vaccination site, as well as systemic reactions such as fever, general discomfort and diarrhea. However, most of them are once-over, and can be recovered in a short time without sequelae. Generally, no special treatment is required. If the reaction is heavy, it should be treated immediately in the hospital.
for example: we are very concerned. We are currently in clinical trials. The new crown inactivated vaccine is on the market. Like any other vaccine, there may be some common reactions after vaccination, including itching and palpitation at the vaccination site; the whole body reactions such as fever, headache, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, muscle pain, joint pain, sleepiness, etc.; generally, it is not necessary to deal with it, that is, it is not necessary to deal with it The patients who have serious symptoms can be treated with the guidance of the doctor. If there is serious allergic reaction, we should consult in time. A few people may have allergic rash and other abnormal reactions due to individual differences. They can go to the hospital and recover after treatment.
According to the information provided by three new crown inactivated vaccine manufacturers,
shows that: phase I / II clinical trial has only general adverse reactions, no serious adverse reactions; phase III clinical trial has been carried out in more than 10 countries, such as UAE, Brazil, Argentina and Indonesia, with more than 100000 people in the group, and the safety of the vaccine is good after vaccination; the emergency use of new crown inactivated vaccine has been approved Since the trial, one belt, one road, and other key projects have been vaccinated by foreign businessmen. The cumulative number of people who intend to go abroad has accumulated more than 450 thousand people. There are only general adverse reactions, and no serious adverse reactions. About 60 thousand of them have gone abroad, and none of them has a new crown virus infection.
original title: when can vaccine shortage be alleviated? Will there be any abnormal reaction after vaccination? Listen to the expert on disease control say,